Socio-ecology of the French reef landscape in virtual reality | 2018-2020 : Coral reefs are home to 25% of marine biodiversity, and support some 500 million human beings (supply, regulation and culture). However, the reefs have undergone severe degradation in recent decades (global changes and local impacts), leading to a decline in ecosystem goods and services, which is accompanied by an increase in the inherent coastal risks.
Knowledge of the role of ecological functions as a support for human well-being requires a tangible identification of human-nature interactions within these complex systems. We propose here to map at high resolution (LiDAR and multispectral topobathymmetric imagery) the landscape organization of three socio-ecological reef systems in three oceans where France has overseas territories (Atlantic, Indian and Pacific). This high-resolution mapping will allow us to characterize the major human-environment interactions and to simulate their response to climate-oceanic changes during the 21st century through predictive modeling and virtual reality.
REVE Cot - Virtual Reality and coastal cities: Appropriation of the hazard and exploration of the coast of tomorrow by virtual reality | 2018-2020 : Flooding processes constitute the most dangerous and costly form of natural risks but also the most varied (overflowing of yards, marine submersion, rapid floods, urban runoff, etc.). Some areas are particularly vulnerable because they are located at the point of convergence and interaction of various hydrological hazards which increase the risk. Coastal areas are obviously emblematic of these cross-risk areas. Coastal populations have most often settled at the outlet of the valleys because the latter are the only links between the sea and the interior. However, these topographically low areas are naturally sensitive to flooding from the sea and rivers. The Norman coastal towns are no exception to this observation and have already paid a heavy price (human and financial) in the past. This sensitivity to the hazard of continental and marine flooding is also likely to worsen in a context of climate change inducing, on the one hand, a rise in the average sea level which could reach or even exceed one meter in 2100, and on the other hand. part, possible punctual and more violent water offal, favorable to floods / floods. In many valleys of Normandy, these two hazards in land-sea contact are sometimes concomitant. Different types of hazards will be studied (marine submersion, overflowing of rivers, mudslides) and some form well behind the coastal zone and most often studied separately. The objective of this project is to bring together knowledge to answer common questions about the future of coastal cities. In these latter new challenges are imposed on the actors and decision makers who must coordinate these new environmental constraints, the complexity of the procedures of the development or the protection of the goods and the people, while maintaining the attractiveness of the territories. In this context, the social acceptance of projects becomes a fundamental issue which depends on the appropriation of knowledge by the actors of the territory, and therefore on the methods of disseminating it, and on the choice of potential projects. The importance of the flood hazard (marine and continental), and its possible worsening, leads to review management policies, in particular sometimes the relocation of goods and people.
This type of project requires a reflection co-constructed between scientists, decision-makers and the populations concerned, the starting point of which is the sharing of a culture of risk. This is why this project, which brings together scientists from various disciplines (physical sciences, natural sciences, humanities) aims to improve knowledge of the current marine and continental flood hazard, to study and map the '' evolution of these phenomena in the context of climate change and an induced rise in sea level (digital modeling), to disseminate the results of research to decision-makers, planners and populations using an innovative tool , virtual and augmented reality which will allow actors, on the one hand, to “experience or relive” the current hazards and those estimated in the context of climate change, and on the other hand, to walk in their landscape, even in their possible coastal city of tomorrow.
ANR STORISK | 2016-2020: Small islands facing climate change: towards risk and adaptation trajectories : This 48-month project develops an integrated approach to risks of meteorological-marine origin (erosion, submersion, degradation of coral reefs) in the French overseas territories, in the context of climate change. It will produce an innovative transdisciplinary protocol and useful knowledge for actors ranging from hazards to impacts and vulnerability, and will highlight the most promising climate change adaptation trajectories for these territories.
This project addresses three major risks, coastal erosion, marine submersion and degradation of coral reefs, which are strongly influenced by climatic pressures (in particular by ocean / atmosphere interactions and by sea level rise ) and are therefore likely to worsen in the context of climate change, to the point of ultimately calling into question the habitability of atolls. It addresses these risks through an original approach based on the concepts of Chain of impacts and Vulnerability Trajectory. The reconstruction of Impact Chains and Vulnerability Trajectories for each case study, coupled with an in-depth study of physical and social conditions, translates the risks associated with current hazards and climate change into impact risk trajectories. territorialized. From there, the objective is to engage in a dialogue with local to national actors on future threats and risks, and on the means to face them (adaptation strategies).
More specifically, these risk trajectories take into account:
- What the models tell us about the future evolution of atmosphere / ocean interactions, sea level rise, and possible responses of coral islands to future meteorological-marine pressures;
- Lessons learned from past meteorological-marine events and gradual environmental changes due to climate change in terms of impacts;
- The roots of these impact chains, in other words vulnerability, by showing how the various factors controlling vulnerability have evolved and interacted over the last decades;
- The usefulness of such a global knowledge of the processes and impacts for the actors concerned, not only at the scale of the southwest Indian Ocean and Pacific regions, but also at the national level.